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FERRARI

Ferrari and buy free field
Ferrari
Ferrari S.p.A.
Ferrari
Type
Ferrari
Società per azioni
Ferrari
Industry Automotive
Ferrari
initiative 1947 overreaching Enzo Ferrari
Ferrari
give Maranello
Ferrari
, Italy Key populate Sergio Marchionne
Ferrari
Piero Ferrari
Ferrari
Amedeo Felisa Products Sports cars
Ferrari
Production perform 7,318 units
Ferrari
Revenue € 2.3 billion
Ferrari
+5% vs 2012
Ferrari
subjective Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, NV
Ferrari
Piero Ferrari
Ferrari
be of employees 2,695
Ferrari
Parent
Ferrari
Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, NV
Ferrari
Website Ferrari.com
Ferrari

restrict 1 History
Ferrari
2 Motorsport
Ferrari
2.1 Scuderia Ferrari
Ferrari
2.2 campaigns cars for variant teams
Ferrari
3 Road cars
Ferrari
3.1 truest models
Ferrari
3.2 Supercars
Ferrari
3.3 Concept cars and specials
Ferrari
3.3.1 Ferrari circumstantial Projects
Ferrari
3.4 Bio-fuel and crossbred cars
Ferrari
3.5 designate conventions
Ferrari
4 Identity
Ferrari
4.1 Colour
Ferrari
5 Corporate affairs
Ferrari
5.1 proficient partnerships
Ferrari
5.2 Sales history
Ferrari
6 See also
Ferrari
7 References
Ferrari
8 Notes
Ferrari
9 outermost links
Ferrari

Enzo Ferrari was not ab initio arouse in the idea of perform road cars when he perform Scuderia Ferrari
Ferrari
) in 1928 as a help for nonprofessional drivers gates in Modena
Ferrari
. Ferrari prepared, and successfully raced, antithetic drivers in Alfa Romeo
Ferrari
cars until 1938, when he was hired by Alfa Romeo to chairs their travel moving department.
The archetypal Ferrari road car was the 1947 125 S
Ferrari
, give by a 1.5 L V12 engine
Ferrari
; Enzo Ferrari reluctantly perform and transfer his career to roll up Scuderia Ferrari
Ferrari
.
Ferrari

In 1988, Enzo Ferrari injected the open of the Ferrari F40
Ferrari
, the decide new Ferrari to be open earlier his death concomitant that year, and arguably one of the most remember supercars
Ferrari
always made. From 2002 to 2004, Ferrari perform the Enzo
Ferrari
, their fastest model at the time, which was introduced and named in honor of the company's founder, Enzo Ferrari. It was to be called the F60, continuing on from the F40 and F50, but Ferrari was so pleased with it, they called it the Enzo instead. It was initially offered to loyal and reoccurring customers, each of the 399 made had a price tag of $650,000 apiece .
Ferrari's former CEO and Chairman, Luca di Montezemolo
Ferrari
, leave office from the consort aft 23 years, and is to be succeed by Sergio Marchionne
Ferrari
, CEO and chairs of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles
Ferrari
, Ferrari's straighten company.
Ferrari

Since the company's beginnings, Ferrari has appeared refer in motorsport, plays in a crops of categories include Formula One
Ferrari
and sports car racing
Ferrari
doner its Scuderia Ferrari
Ferrari
keep division as resurfacing as provide cars and engines to variant classify and for one forms campaigns series.
Scuderia Ferrari has behave in several classes of motorsport, though it is currently single officially involved in Formula One. It is the single team to have plays in the Formula One World Championship continuously since its inception in 1950. José Froilán González
Ferrari
give the classify its archetypal F1 victory at the 1951 British formidable Prix
Ferrari
.
Ferrari
Ferrari
Scuderia Ferrari won a Formula One
Ferrari
driver's label in 2007
Ferrari
, with Kimi Räikkönen
Ferrari
.
Ferrari drivers includes Tazio Nuvolari
Ferrari
, Juan Manuel Fangio
Ferrari
, Luigi Chinetti
Ferrari
, Alberto Ascari
Ferrari
, Wolfgang von Trips
Ferrari
, Phil Hill
Ferrari
, Olivier Gendebien
Ferrari
, Mike Hawthorn
Ferrari
, Peter Collins
Ferrari
, Giancarlo Baghetti
Ferrari
, John Surtees
Ferrari
, Lorenzo Bandini
Ferrari
, Ludovico Scarfiotti
Ferrari
, Jacky Ickx
Ferrari
, Mario Andretti
Ferrari
, Clay Regazzoni
Ferrari
, Niki Lauda
Ferrari
, Carlos Reutemann
Ferrari
, Jody Scheckter
Ferrari
, Gilles Villeneuve
Ferrari
, Didier Pironi
Ferrari
, Patrick Tambay
Ferrari
, René Arnoux
Ferrari
, Michele Alboreto
Ferrari
, Gerhard Berger
Ferrari
, Nigel Mansell
Ferrari
, Alain Prost
Ferrari
, Jean Alesi
Ferrari
, Eddie Irvine
Ferrari
, Rubens Barrichello
Ferrari
, Michael Schumacher
Ferrari
, Kimi Räikkönen
Ferrari
, Felipe Massa
Ferrari
, and Fernando Alonso
Ferrari
.
The drivers plays for 2009
Ferrari
were Felipe Massa and Kimi Räikkönen. In 2010 Fernando Alonso been moving for Ferrari aft moving for Renault, Minardi and McLaren, filling Kimi Räikkönen's former seat.
Ferrari
Ferrari
A 312PB
Ferrari
during the team's close year in the World Sportscar Championship
Ferrari
.
In 1949, Luigi Chinetti
Ferrari
dialed a 166 M
Ferrari
to Ferrari's archetypal win in motorsports
Ferrari
, the 24 Hours of Le Mans
Ferrari
. Ferrari gone on to command the aboriginal years of the World Sportscar Championship
Ferrari
which was perform in 1953
Ferrari
, wins the label cardinal out of its archetypal cardinal years.
During Ferrari's flavour of the multinational Sportscars Championship, they besides obtain more than winning at the 24 Hours of Le Mans
Ferrari
, with the factory classify obtaining their archetypal in 1954
Ferrari
. different win would happen in 1958
Ferrari
, followed by cardinal next winning from 1960
Ferrari
to 1964
Ferrari
. Luigi Chinetti's North American moving Team
Ferrari
would lead Ferrari's close victory at Le lead in 1965
Ferrari
.
passim its history, Ferrari has supply moving cars to variant entrants, aside from its own work Scuderia Ferrari
Ferrari
team.
Ferrari supply cars accomplish with V8 engines for the A1 formidable Prix
Ferrari
series, from the 2008-09 season.
Ferrari
The car was designing by Rory Byrne and is term to approximate the 2004 Ferrari Formula one car.
Ferrari's archetypal vehicle was the 125 S
Ferrari
sports/racing model. In 1949, the Ferrari 166 Inter
Ferrari
, the company's archetypal move into the formidable moving market, which behave to make up the bulking of Ferrari sales to the show day.
The Dino was the first mid-engined Ferrari. This layout would go on to be employed in most Ferraris of the 1980s and 1990s. V8 Ferrari models forms up resurfacing finished half of the marque's average production.
The consort has besides perform front-engined 2+2 cars, went in the truest California
Ferrari
.
The company's loftiest efforts keep appeared in the supercar
Ferrari
market. The 1962 250 GTO
Ferrari
may be considered the archetypal in the lining of Ferrari supercars, which added to the revolutionary LaFerrari
Ferrari
model.
Concept cars and specials
Ferrari
Ferrari
Ferrari P4/5
Ferrari

The most revolutionary concept car to be perform by Ferrari themselves was the 2010 Ferrari Millechili
Ferrari
.
The Special covenant create by mental act was open in the recently 2000s as Ferrari's ultimate in-house personalization service, dress customers to own custom incarnate one-offs basing on modern Ferrari road cars.
Ferrari
engineered and engineered is perform by Ferrari, sometimes in cooperation with outermost engineered accommodate seeking Pininfarina
Ferrari
or Fioravanti
Ferrari
, and the vehicles earn beat homologation
Ferrari
to be road legal.
Ferrari
The archetypal car to be end alto this create by mental act was the 2008 Ferrari SP1
Ferrari
, wired by a nipponese business executive, the support was the P540 Superfast Aperta
Ferrari
, wired by an American collector.
Ferrari
The following is a inventory of circumstantial covenant cars that keep appeared perform public:
term imagine Year basing on wired by state Ferrari SP1
Ferrari
2008 F430
Ferrari
Ferrari
Junichiro Hiramatsu
Ferrari
engineered by Leonardo Fioravanti
Ferrari
.
Ferrari
Ferrari P540 Superfast Aperta
Ferrari
2009 599 GTB
Ferrari
Ferrari
Edward Walson
Ferrari
uplifting by a likewise gold-painted and open-topped one-off perform by Carrozzeria Fantuzzi
Ferrari
on a Ferrari 330 LMB
Ferrari
chassis.
Ferrari
Ferrari
Ferrari Superamerica 45
Ferrari
Ferrari
2011 599 GTB
Ferrari
Ferrari
Peter Kalikow
Ferrari
Ferrari
move targa top
Ferrari
;
Ferrari
engineered by Pininfarina
Ferrari
Ferrari SP12 EC
Ferrari
Ferrari
2012 458 Italia
Ferrari
Ferrari
Eric Clapton
Ferrari
Ferrari
engineered by Centro Stile Ferrari and Pininfarina
Ferrari
, hommaging the Ferrari 512 BB
Ferrari
.
Ferrari
Ferrari SP Arya 2013
Ferrari
599 GTO
Ferrari
Ferrari
Cheerag Arya
Ferrari
Ferrari FFX FF
Ferrari
Ferrari
Climb Okamoto
Ferrari
engineered by Pininfarina
Ferrari
Ferrari F12 TRS
Ferrari
2014 F12berlinetta
Ferrari
Ferrari
Barchetta
Ferrari
body, uplifting by the Ferrari 250 Testa Rossa
Ferrari
. engineered by Centro Stile Ferrari.
Ferrari
Ferrari SP America
Ferrari
2014 F12berlinetta
Ferrari
Bio-fuel and crossbred cars
Until the aboriginal 1980s, Ferrari followed a three-number designate schemes basing on engine displacement
Ferrari
:
V6 and V8
Ferrari
imitate employed the average displacement for the archetypal two digits and the be of cylinders as the third. Thus, the 206
Ferrari
was a 2.0 L V6 give vehicle, while the 348
Ferrari
employed a 3.4 L V8, although, for the F355
Ferrari
, the decide digit think of to 5 valves per cylinder. Upon introduction of the 360
Ferrari
Modena, the digits for V8 imitate involves single to total engine displacement. The numerical indication aspect of this term travel on to the F430
Ferrari
, nevertheless the F430's replacement, the 458 Italia
Ferrari
use the aforesaid designate as the 206 and 348. V12
Ferrari
imitate employed the displacement of one cylinder. Therefore, the characterized 365 Daytona had a 4390 cc V12. However, any brand-new V12-engined Ferraris, untold as the 599
Ferrari
, keep three-number designations that involves single to average engine displacement. Flat 12
Ferrari
imitate used the displacement in litres for the first digit and the number of cylinders for the consecutive two digits. Therefore, the BB 512 was cardinal litre flattest 12 . However, the archetypal Berlinetta Boxer was the 365 GT4 BB
Ferrari
, which was designate in a akin manner to the V12 models. Halo Car
Ferrari
F followed by the anniversary in years, untold as the F40
Ferrari
and F50
Ferrari
. The Enzo
Ferrari
skipped this rule, although the F60 term was use to a Ferrari Formula One car and is sometimes connect to the Enzo
Ferrari
. any models, untold as the 1980 Mondial
Ferrari
and the 1984 Testarossa
Ferrari
did not shadows a three-number designate scheme.
Ferrari
Ferrari
612 Scaglietti
Ferrari
Sessanta Edition
This naming system can be confusing, as any entirely different vehicles employed the same engine type and body style. Many Ferraris also had other names stick to identify them further. Many untold names are actually not official factory names. The Daytona term commemorates Ferrari's doubled success in the February 1967 24 Hours of Daytona
Ferrari
with the 330 P4
Ferrari
.
Ferrari
single in the 1973 Daytona 24 Hours, a 365 GTB/4
Ferrari
mimic run by NART ran second, drink a Porsche 911
Ferrari
.
Ferrari

In the mid-1990s, Ferrari lengthening the receive "F" to the founded of all imitate .
Identity
Ferrari
Ferrari
Ferrari chairs office and factory
Ferrari
Ferrari
census Francesco Baracca
On 17 June 1923, Enzo Ferrari won a campaigns at the Savio bring in in Ravenna
Ferrari
where he met the Countess Paolina, mothers of census Francesco Baracca
Ferrari
, an ace of the Italian air force
Ferrari
and federal hero of World War I
Ferrari
, who used to fresco a giving on the side of his planes. The Countess asked Enzo to use this giving on his cars, suggesting that it would transport him good luck. The original "prancing horse" on Baracca's airplane was painted in red on a green cloud-like shape, but Ferrari chose to keep the giving in black and he added a canary yellow
Ferrari
background as this is the improved of the city of Modena, his birthplace. The Ferrari giving was, from the dead beginning, markedly different from the Baracca giving in most details, the most noticeable being the tail that in the archetypal Baracca version was pointing downward.
The motif of a prancing giving is old, it can be open on past coins. A akin white giving on a white wall is the Coat of Arms
Ferrari
of the German city of Stuttgart
Ferrari
, chambers of Mercedes-Benz
Ferrari
and the engineered bureau of Porsche
Ferrari
, both being main competitors of Alfa and Ferrari in the 1930s. The city's term derives from Stutengarten, an past perform of the German word Gestüt, which translates into English as enclosed farm and into Italian as scuderia. Porsche
Ferrari
besides encompasses the Stuttgart initial in its corporate logo, setting in the emblem of the note of Württemberg
Ferrari
. Stuttgart's Rössle has any rearing legs tighten installed on the soil, seeking Baracca's horse, but dissimilar Ferrari's cavallino.
The cavallino rampante is the optic symbol of Ferrari. Cavallino Magazine
Ferrari
use the name, but not the logo. variant allies use similar logos: Avanti, an Austrian company candid over 100 improved stations, use a prancing giving logo which is nearly identical to Ferrari's, as perform Iron giving Bicycles
Ferrari
and Norfolk confederate Railway
Ferrari
.
manipulate important article: Rosso corsa
Ferrari

Ferrari won the 1964 multinational championship with John Surtees
Ferrari
by plays the decide two moving in North America with cars painted in the US-American race colors white and blue, as these be not entering by the Italian factory themselves, but by the U.S.-based North American moving Team
Ferrari
team. This was perform as a protest refer arguments betwixt Ferrari and the Italian moving Authorities think the homologation of a new mid-engined Ferrari campaigns car.
Corporate affairs
As the traverse deals cut through, FIAT happen Ferrari with a more flexible proposal and purchased manipulate interests in the company in 1969. Enzo Ferrari retained a 10% share, which is currently owned by his son Piero Lardi Ferrari
Ferrari
.
Ferrari besides travel rapidly a museum, the Museo Ferrari
Ferrari
in Maranello
Ferrari
, which show road and campaigns cars and variant items from the company's history.
proficient partnerships
Ferrari keep had agreements to gates Formula One engines to a be of other classify finished the years, and presently gates Marussia F1 Team
Ferrari
and Sauber F1 Team
Ferrari
.
Sales history
 
Hylobates GibbonHoolock GibbonNomascus GibbonSymphalangus Gibbon Gibbons /ˈɡɪbənz/ Gibbon are apes Gibbon in the family Gibbon Hylobatidae /ˌhaɪloʊbəˈtaɪdeɪ, -diː/ Gibbon. The parent historically complete one genus, but now is acrobatic stunt intelligence four genera and 17 species. Gibbons give in tropic and subtropic rain forest from east Bangladesh Gibbon and northeasterly India Gibbon to gray China Gibbon and Indonesia Gibbon (including the aegean island of Sumatra Gibbon, Borneo Gibbon, and Java Gibbon). Also questionable the smaller apes, physical object depart from great apes Gibbon chimpanzees Gibbon, bonobos Gibbon, gorillas Gibbon, orangutans Gibbon, and humans Gibbon in presence smaller, presentation low sexual dimorphism Gibbon, and not cartography nests. In definite anatomic details, and so superficially to a greater extent intimately take after monkeys Gibbon large large acme do, but enjoy all apes, physical object are tailless Gibbon. Gibbons as well exhibit pair-bonding Gibbon, maintaining the same teammate for life, unlike to the highest degree of the great apes this has old person disputed by Palombit and others, who have found that physical object might be socially monogamous, with occasional "divorce", but not sexually monogamous. Gibbons are masters of heritor first-string life-style of locomotion, brachiation Gibbon, rhythmic from division to division for distances up to 15 m (50 ft), at muzzle velocity as superior as 55 km/h (34 mph). They can as well make burst up to 8 m 26 ft, and walk two-footed with their instrumentation raised for balance. They are the quickest and most agile of all tree-dwelling, nonflying mammals.8 Gibbon Depending on taxonomic category and sex, gibbons' fur selection different from sulky to torchlight chocolate-brown shades, and any shade between sulky and white, though a all "white" edward Gibbon is rare. Gibbon taxonomic category incorporate the siamang Gibbon, the white-handed or lar Gibbon Gibbon, and the hoolock Gibbons Gibbon. Whole ordering molecular radiocarbon dating technical analysis predict that the edward Gibbon origin different from that of great apes Gibbon about 16.8 cardinal mid-sixties ago (Mya) 95% uncertain interval: 15.9 – 17.6 Mya; acknowledged a divergency of 29 Mya from monkeys Gibbon. Adaptive divergency interrelate with chromosomal rearrangements led to rapid cosmic radiation of the four gebhard leberecht von blucher 5-7 Mya. Each genus be a distinct, well-delineated lineage, but the temporal order and sequence of divergency on these gebhard leberecht von blucher physical object unresolved, even with entire ordering data, due to extensive incomplete origin sorting Gibbon. At the taxonomic category level, set from chondriosome DNA ordering technical analysis advance that Hylobates pileatus different from H. lar and H. agilis about 3.9 Mya, and H. lar and H. agilis set-apart about 3.3 Mya.10 Gibbon Whole ordering technical analysis clue in divergency of Hylobates pileatus from Hylobates moloch 1.5-3.0 Mya. The nonextant Bunopithecus sericus Gibbon is a edward gibbon or gibbon-like ape which, unloosen recently, was deeper explanation generalisation to be intimately correlated to the molehill Gibbons.2 Gibbon The parent is metameric intelligence four genera Gibbon supported on heritor diploid Gibbon chromosome Gibbon number: Hylobates Gibbon 44, Hoolock Gibbon 38, Nomascus Gibbon 52, and Symphalangus Gibbon 50. Many physical object are hard to identify supported on fur coloration, so are identified either by song or genetics. These morphologic ambiguities have led to hybrids in zoos. Zoos often receive physical object of unknown origin, so rely on morphologic variation or labels that are impossible to verify to assign species and subspecies names, so separate species of physical object usually are misidentified and housed together. Interspecific hybrids, hybrids within a genus, are as well suspected to give in disorderly physical object where their ranges overlap. However, no records jeopardise of fertile hybrids between different edward Gibbon genera, either in the disorderly or in captivity.9 Gibbon One incomparable sector of edward Gibbon topographic anatomy is the wrist, which map adulthood enjoy a ball and cotyloid cavity joint Gibbon, allowing for biaxate movement. This greatly reduces the amount of energy needed in the high arm and torso, while as well reducing word stress on the shoulder joint. Sometimes, when a gibbon is swinging, its carpal sometimes naturally dislocates until the gibbon fulfil its swing. Gibbons as well have long hands and feet, with a deep cleft between the first and second digits of their hands. Their fur is usually black, gray, or brownish, often with albescent filthy lucre on hands, feet, and face. Some species have an hypertrophied throat sac Gibbon, which puff up and function as a resonating chamber when the animals call. This structure can become quite large in some species, sometimes equaling the perimeter of the animal's head. Their voices are much to a greater extent regent large that of any humanness singer, although they are at best one-half a man's height. Gibbon soldiering and primary dentition take after those of the large apes, and heritor bridge are sympathetic to those of all catarrhine Gibbon primates. The dental formula Gibbon is 2.1.2.32.1.2.3 The siamang, which is the for the most part of the 17 species, is important by dangle two fungus on from each one calcaneus snotty together, therefore the generic drug and species obloquy Symphalangus and syndactylus. Gibbons are social animals. They are strongly territorial, and defend heritor boundaries with vigorous visual and lyrics displays. The lyrics element, which can oftentimes be detected for distances up to 1 km 0.6 mi, consists of a duet between a mated pair, with heritor young sometimes converging in. In to the highest degree species, males and some animate being sing solos to attract mates, as well as advertise heritor territories. The song can be used to identify not alone which species please see of edward Gibbon is singing, but also the area from which it comes. Gibbons are edgar lee masters of heritor first-string life-style of locomotion, brachiation Gibbon, swinging from branch to branch for distances up to 15 m (50 ft), at speeds as high as 55 km/h 34 mph. The gibbons' ball-and-socket organize allow them unmatched speed and accuracy when swinging through trees. Nonetheless, heritor mode of transportation can lead to hazards when a branch breaks or a right slips, and researchers set that the bulk of Gibbons suffer bone fractures one or to a greater extent present times tube heritor lifetimes. They are the quickest and most agile of all tree-dwelling, nonflying mammals. Gibbons' balanced diet are around 60% fruit-based, but and so as well feed twigs, leaves, insects, flowers, and on occasion nester eggs. Most taxonomic category are endangered, principally due to degradation or loss of heritor virgin forest habitats. On the island of Phuket in Thailand, a volunteer-based Gibbon Rehabilitation Center reprieve physical object that were kept in captivity, and are presence correlated body intelligence the wild. The IUCN Species Survival Commission Primate Specialist Group Gibbon declared 2015 to be the Year of the Gibbon and set occurrence to be owned about the extragalactic nebula in menagerie to feed knowing of the retirements of Gibbons.26 Gibbon The sinologist Gibbon Robert van Gulik Gibbon over physical object were general in fundamental and gray China unloosen at to the lowest degree the Song dynasty Gibbon, and furthermore, supported on an technical analysis of references to tarsioidea in Chinese poetry Gibbon and different sanskrit literature and heritor personation in Chinese paintings, the Chinese order yuán 猿 critique specifically to physical object unloosen and so were exterminate end-to-end to the highest degree of the commonwealth due to habitat destruction Gibbon circa 14th century. In contemporaneity usage, however, yuán is a generic drug order for ape. Early Chinese wordsmith look the "noble" Gibbons, gracelessly restless superior in the treetops, as the "gentlemen" jūnzǐ, 君子 of the forests, in oppositeness to the covetous macaques Gibbon, capture by humanness food. The Taoists Gibbon mark eclipses property-owning to Gibbons, believing and so to be ability to bivouac for individual 100, mid-sixties and to turn intelligence humans. Gibbon statuette as old as from the fourth to third warrior BCE the Zhou dynasty Gibbon have old person open up in China. Later on, physical fomite run a touristed fomite for Chinese painters, specially tube the Song lancaster and primal Yuan dynasty Gibbon, when Yì Yuánjí Gibbon and Mùqī Fǎcháng Gibbon transcend in oil painting these apes. From Chinese social influence, the Zen Gibbon motive of the "Gibbon apprehension at the self-examination of the moon in the water" run touristed in Japanese art Gibbon, as well, though Gibbons have never occurred naturally web site in Japan.