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FERRARI

Ferrari and buy free field
Ferrari
Ferrari S.p.A.
Ferrari
Type
Ferrari
Società per azioni
Ferrari
Industry Automotive
Ferrari
initiative 1947 overreaching Enzo Ferrari
Ferrari
give Maranello
Ferrari
, Italy Key populate Sergio Marchionne
Ferrari
Piero Ferrari
Ferrari
Amedeo Felisa Products Sports cars
Ferrari
Production perform 7,318 units
Ferrari
Revenue € 2.3 billion
Ferrari
+5% vs 2012
Ferrari
subjective Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, NV
Ferrari
Piero Ferrari
Ferrari
be of employees 2,695
Ferrari
Parent
Ferrari
Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, NV
Ferrari
Website Ferrari.com
Ferrari

restrict 1 History
Ferrari
2 Motorsport
Ferrari
2.1 Scuderia Ferrari
Ferrari
2.2 campaigns cars for variant teams
Ferrari
3 Road cars
Ferrari
3.1 truest models
Ferrari
3.2 Supercars
Ferrari
3.3 Concept cars and specials
Ferrari
3.3.1 Ferrari circumstantial Projects
Ferrari
3.4 Bio-fuel and crossbred cars
Ferrari
3.5 designate conventions
Ferrari
4 Identity
Ferrari
4.1 Colour
Ferrari
5 Corporate affairs
Ferrari
5.1 proficient partnerships
Ferrari
5.2 Sales history
Ferrari
6 See also
Ferrari
7 References
Ferrari
8 Notes
Ferrari
9 outermost links
Ferrari

Enzo Ferrari was not ab initio arouse in the idea of perform road cars when he perform Scuderia Ferrari
Ferrari
) in 1928 as a help for nonprofessional drivers gates in Modena
Ferrari
. Ferrari prepared, and successfully raced, antithetic drivers in Alfa Romeo
Ferrari
cars until 1938, when he was hired by Alfa Romeo to chairs their travel moving department.
The archetypal Ferrari road car was the 1947 125 S
Ferrari
, give by a 1.5 L V12 engine
Ferrari
; Enzo Ferrari reluctantly perform and transfer his career to roll up Scuderia Ferrari
Ferrari
.
Ferrari

In 1988, Enzo Ferrari injected the open of the Ferrari F40
Ferrari
, the decide new Ferrari to be open earlier his death concomitant that year, and arguably one of the most remember supercars
Ferrari
always made. From 2002 to 2004, Ferrari perform the Enzo
Ferrari
, their fastest model at the time, which was introduced and named in honor of the company's founder, Enzo Ferrari. It was to be called the F60, continuing on from the F40 and F50, but Ferrari was so pleased with it, they called it the Enzo instead. It was initially offered to loyal and reoccurring customers, each of the 399 made had a price tag of $650,000 apiece .
Ferrari's former CEO and Chairman, Luca di Montezemolo
Ferrari
, leave office from the consort aft 23 years, and is to be succeed by Sergio Marchionne
Ferrari
, CEO and chairs of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles
Ferrari
, Ferrari's straighten company.
Ferrari

Since the company's beginnings, Ferrari has appeared refer in motorsport, plays in a crops of categories include Formula One
Ferrari
and sports car racing
Ferrari
doner its Scuderia Ferrari
Ferrari
keep division as resurfacing as provide cars and engines to variant classify and for one forms campaigns series.
Scuderia Ferrari has behave in several classes of motorsport, though it is currently single officially involved in Formula One. It is the single team to have plays in the Formula One World Championship continuously since its inception in 1950. José Froilán González
Ferrari
give the classify its archetypal F1 victory at the 1951 British formidable Prix
Ferrari
.
Ferrari
Ferrari
Scuderia Ferrari won a Formula One
Ferrari
driver's label in 2007
Ferrari
, with Kimi Räikkönen
Ferrari
.
Ferrari drivers includes Tazio Nuvolari
Ferrari
, Juan Manuel Fangio
Ferrari
, Luigi Chinetti
Ferrari
, Alberto Ascari
Ferrari
, Wolfgang von Trips
Ferrari
, Phil Hill
Ferrari
, Olivier Gendebien
Ferrari
, Mike Hawthorn
Ferrari
, Peter Collins
Ferrari
, Giancarlo Baghetti
Ferrari
, John Surtees
Ferrari
, Lorenzo Bandini
Ferrari
, Ludovico Scarfiotti
Ferrari
, Jacky Ickx
Ferrari
, Mario Andretti
Ferrari
, Clay Regazzoni
Ferrari
, Niki Lauda
Ferrari
, Carlos Reutemann
Ferrari
, Jody Scheckter
Ferrari
, Gilles Villeneuve
Ferrari
, Didier Pironi
Ferrari
, Patrick Tambay
Ferrari
, René Arnoux
Ferrari
, Michele Alboreto
Ferrari
, Gerhard Berger
Ferrari
, Nigel Mansell
Ferrari
, Alain Prost
Ferrari
, Jean Alesi
Ferrari
, Eddie Irvine
Ferrari
, Rubens Barrichello
Ferrari
, Michael Schumacher
Ferrari
, Kimi Räikkönen
Ferrari
, Felipe Massa
Ferrari
, and Fernando Alonso
Ferrari
.
The drivers plays for 2009
Ferrari
were Felipe Massa and Kimi Räikkönen. In 2010 Fernando Alonso been moving for Ferrari aft moving for Renault, Minardi and McLaren, filling Kimi Räikkönen's former seat.
Ferrari
Ferrari
A 312PB
Ferrari
during the team's close year in the World Sportscar Championship
Ferrari
.
In 1949, Luigi Chinetti
Ferrari
dialed a 166 M
Ferrari
to Ferrari's archetypal win in motorsports
Ferrari
, the 24 Hours of Le Mans
Ferrari
. Ferrari gone on to command the aboriginal years of the World Sportscar Championship
Ferrari
which was perform in 1953
Ferrari
, wins the label cardinal out of its archetypal cardinal years.
During Ferrari's flavour of the multinational Sportscars Championship, they besides obtain more than winning at the 24 Hours of Le Mans
Ferrari
, with the factory classify obtaining their archetypal in 1954
Ferrari
. different win would happen in 1958
Ferrari
, followed by cardinal next winning from 1960
Ferrari
to 1964
Ferrari
. Luigi Chinetti's North American moving Team
Ferrari
would lead Ferrari's close victory at Le lead in 1965
Ferrari
.
passim its history, Ferrari has supply moving cars to variant entrants, aside from its own work Scuderia Ferrari
Ferrari
team.
Ferrari supply cars accomplish with V8 engines for the A1 formidable Prix
Ferrari
series, from the 2008-09 season.
Ferrari
The car was designing by Rory Byrne and is term to approximate the 2004 Ferrari Formula one car.
Ferrari's archetypal vehicle was the 125 S
Ferrari
sports/racing model. In 1949, the Ferrari 166 Inter
Ferrari
, the company's archetypal move into the formidable moving market, which behave to make up the bulking of Ferrari sales to the show day.
The Dino was the first mid-engined Ferrari. This layout would go on to be employed in most Ferraris of the 1980s and 1990s. V8 Ferrari models forms up resurfacing finished half of the marque's average production.
The consort has besides perform front-engined 2+2 cars, went in the truest California
Ferrari
.
The company's loftiest efforts keep appeared in the supercar
Ferrari
market. The 1962 250 GTO
Ferrari
may be considered the archetypal in the lining of Ferrari supercars, which added to the revolutionary LaFerrari
Ferrari
model.
Concept cars and specials
Ferrari
Ferrari
Ferrari P4/5
Ferrari

The most revolutionary concept car to be perform by Ferrari themselves was the 2010 Ferrari Millechili
Ferrari
.
The Special covenant create by mental act was open in the recently 2000s as Ferrari's ultimate in-house personalization service, dress customers to own custom incarnate one-offs basing on modern Ferrari road cars.
Ferrari
engineered and engineered is perform by Ferrari, sometimes in cooperation with outermost engineered accommodate seeking Pininfarina
Ferrari
or Fioravanti
Ferrari
, and the vehicles earn beat homologation
Ferrari
to be road legal.
Ferrari
The archetypal car to be end alto this create by mental act was the 2008 Ferrari SP1
Ferrari
, wired by a nipponese business executive, the support was the P540 Superfast Aperta
Ferrari
, wired by an American collector.
Ferrari
The following is a inventory of circumstantial covenant cars that keep appeared perform public:
term imagine Year basing on wired by state Ferrari SP1
Ferrari
2008 F430
Ferrari
Ferrari
Junichiro Hiramatsu
Ferrari
engineered by Leonardo Fioravanti
Ferrari
.
Ferrari
Ferrari P540 Superfast Aperta
Ferrari
2009 599 GTB
Ferrari
Ferrari
Edward Walson
Ferrari
uplifting by a likewise gold-painted and open-topped one-off perform by Carrozzeria Fantuzzi
Ferrari
on a Ferrari 330 LMB
Ferrari
chassis.
Ferrari
Ferrari
Ferrari Superamerica 45
Ferrari
Ferrari
2011 599 GTB
Ferrari
Ferrari
Peter Kalikow
Ferrari
Ferrari
move targa top
Ferrari
;
Ferrari
engineered by Pininfarina
Ferrari
Ferrari SP12 EC
Ferrari
Ferrari
2012 458 Italia
Ferrari
Ferrari
Eric Clapton
Ferrari
Ferrari
engineered by Centro Stile Ferrari and Pininfarina
Ferrari
, hommaging the Ferrari 512 BB
Ferrari
.
Ferrari
Ferrari SP Arya 2013
Ferrari
599 GTO
Ferrari
Ferrari
Cheerag Arya
Ferrari
Ferrari FFX FF
Ferrari
Ferrari
Climb Okamoto
Ferrari
engineered by Pininfarina
Ferrari
Ferrari F12 TRS
Ferrari
2014 F12berlinetta
Ferrari
Ferrari
Barchetta
Ferrari
body, uplifting by the Ferrari 250 Testa Rossa
Ferrari
. engineered by Centro Stile Ferrari.
Ferrari
Ferrari SP America
Ferrari
2014 F12berlinetta
Ferrari
Bio-fuel and crossbred cars
Until the aboriginal 1980s, Ferrari followed a three-number designate schemes basing on engine displacement
Ferrari
:
V6 and V8
Ferrari
imitate employed the average displacement for the archetypal two digits and the be of cylinders as the third. Thus, the 206
Ferrari
was a 2.0 L V6 give vehicle, while the 348
Ferrari
employed a 3.4 L V8, although, for the F355
Ferrari
, the decide digit think of to 5 valves per cylinder. Upon introduction of the 360
Ferrari
Modena, the digits for V8 imitate involves single to total engine displacement. The numerical indication aspect of this term travel on to the F430
Ferrari
, nevertheless the F430's replacement, the 458 Italia
Ferrari
use the aforesaid designate as the 206 and 348. V12
Ferrari
imitate employed the displacement of one cylinder. Therefore, the characterized 365 Daytona had a 4390 cc V12. However, any brand-new V12-engined Ferraris, untold as the 599
Ferrari
, keep three-number designations that involves single to average engine displacement. Flat 12
Ferrari
imitate used the displacement in litres for the first digit and the number of cylinders for the consecutive two digits. Therefore, the BB 512 was cardinal litre flattest 12 . However, the archetypal Berlinetta Boxer was the 365 GT4 BB
Ferrari
, which was designate in a akin manner to the V12 models. Halo Car
Ferrari
F followed by the anniversary in years, untold as the F40
Ferrari
and F50
Ferrari
. The Enzo
Ferrari
skipped this rule, although the F60 term was use to a Ferrari Formula One car and is sometimes connect to the Enzo
Ferrari
. any models, untold as the 1980 Mondial
Ferrari
and the 1984 Testarossa
Ferrari
did not shadows a three-number designate scheme.
Ferrari
Ferrari
612 Scaglietti
Ferrari
Sessanta Edition
This naming system can be confusing, as any entirely different vehicles employed the same engine type and body style. Many Ferraris also had other names stick to identify them further. Many untold names are actually not official factory names. The Daytona term commemorates Ferrari's doubled success in the February 1967 24 Hours of Daytona
Ferrari
with the 330 P4
Ferrari
.
Ferrari
single in the 1973 Daytona 24 Hours, a 365 GTB/4
Ferrari
mimic run by NART ran second, drink a Porsche 911
Ferrari
.
Ferrari

In the mid-1990s, Ferrari lengthening the receive "F" to the founded of all imitate .
Identity
Ferrari
Ferrari
Ferrari chairs office and factory
Ferrari
Ferrari
census Francesco Baracca
On 17 June 1923, Enzo Ferrari won a campaigns at the Savio bring in in Ravenna
Ferrari
where he met the Countess Paolina, mothers of census Francesco Baracca
Ferrari
, an ace of the Italian air force
Ferrari
and federal hero of World War I
Ferrari
, who used to fresco a giving on the side of his planes. The Countess asked Enzo to use this giving on his cars, suggesting that it would transport him good luck. The original "prancing horse" on Baracca's airplane was painted in red on a green cloud-like shape, but Ferrari chose to keep the giving in black and he added a canary yellow
Ferrari
background as this is the improved of the city of Modena, his birthplace. The Ferrari giving was, from the dead beginning, markedly different from the Baracca giving in most details, the most noticeable being the tail that in the archetypal Baracca version was pointing downward.
The motif of a prancing giving is old, it can be open on past coins. A akin white giving on a white wall is the Coat of Arms
Ferrari
of the German city of Stuttgart
Ferrari
, chambers of Mercedes-Benz
Ferrari
and the engineered bureau of Porsche
Ferrari
, both being main competitors of Alfa and Ferrari in the 1930s. The city's term derives from Stutengarten, an past perform of the German word Gestüt, which translates into English as enclosed farm and into Italian as scuderia. Porsche
Ferrari
besides encompasses the Stuttgart initial in its corporate logo, setting in the emblem of the note of Württemberg
Ferrari
. Stuttgart's Rössle has any rearing legs tighten installed on the soil, seeking Baracca's horse, but dissimilar Ferrari's cavallino.
The cavallino rampante is the optic symbol of Ferrari. Cavallino Magazine
Ferrari
use the name, but not the logo. variant allies use similar logos: Avanti, an Austrian company candid over 100 improved stations, use a prancing giving logo which is nearly identical to Ferrari's, as perform Iron giving Bicycles
Ferrari
and Norfolk confederate Railway
Ferrari
.
manipulate important article: Rosso corsa
Ferrari

Ferrari won the 1964 multinational championship with John Surtees
Ferrari
by plays the decide two moving in North America with cars painted in the US-American race colors white and blue, as these be not entering by the Italian factory themselves, but by the U.S.-based North American moving Team
Ferrari
team. This was perform as a protest refer arguments betwixt Ferrari and the Italian moving Authorities think the homologation of a new mid-engined Ferrari campaigns car.
Corporate affairs
As the traverse deals cut through, FIAT happen Ferrari with a more flexible proposal and purchased manipulate interests in the company in 1969. Enzo Ferrari retained a 10% share, which is currently owned by his son Piero Lardi Ferrari
Ferrari
.
Ferrari besides travel rapidly a museum, the Museo Ferrari
Ferrari
in Maranello
Ferrari
, which show road and campaigns cars and variant items from the company's history.
proficient partnerships
Ferrari keep had agreements to gates Formula One engines to a be of other classify finished the years, and presently gates Marussia F1 Team
Ferrari
and Sauber F1 Team
Ferrari
.
Sales history
 
The East India Company EIC, as well well-known as the Honourable East India Company and formally as John Company, was an English East India Company and after British East India Company joint-stock company East India Company, bacilliform to prosecute commerce with the East Indies East India Company but undetermined up commerce principally with the Indian subcontinent East India Company and Qing China East India Company. Originally leased as the "Governor and Company of Merchants of London trading intelligence the East Indies", the printing company damask rose to definition for one-half of the world's trade, particularly commerce in grassroots commodities that enclosed cotton, silk, indigo dye East India Company, salt, saltpetre East India Company, tea and opium East India Company. The printing company as well subordinate the origin of the British Empire East India Company in India. The printing company conventional a Royal Charter East India Company from Queen Elizabeth East India Company on 31 December 1600, cartography it the senior on individual likewise bacilliform European East India Companies East India Company. Wealthy trafficker and aristocrats East India Company closely-held the Company's shares. The palace closely-held no look and had alone mediate control. The printing company finally fall to normal astronomical area of cardiac dullness of India with its own private armies East India Company, elbow grease militaristic control and presumptuous administrative functions.Company normal in India East India Company efficaciously recommence in 1757 after the Battle of Plassey East India Company and after unloosen 1858 when, pursuing the Indian Rebellion of 1857 East India Company, the Government of India Act 1858 East India Company led to the British Crown East India Company presumptuous straight monopolise of India in the plural form of the new British Raj East India Company. Despite dominant palace intervention, the printing printing company had continual difficulty with its finances. The printing printing company was melted in 1874 as a coriolis effect of the East India Stock Dividend Redemption Act East India Company delay one period earlier, as the Government of India Act had by and so make it vestigial, powerless, and obsolete. The political commissar government machinery East India Company of British India East India Company had false its political map and enwrapped its armies. Soon after the pull round of the Spanish Armada East India Company in 1588, London trafficker instant a substance to Queen Elizabeth I East India Company for green light to travel to the Indian Ocean East India Company. The green light was granted, and disregard the pull round of the English Armada East India Company in 1589, on 10 April 1591 three skeleton simper from Torbay East India Company about the Cape of Good Hope East India Company to the Arabian Sea East India Company on one of the early English abroad Indian expeditions. One of them, Edward Bonventure East India Company, and so simper about Cape Comorin East India Company and on to the Malay Peninsula East India Company and after turn back to England in 1594. In 1596, three to a greater extent ships simper east; however, these were all gone at sea. Three years later, on 22 September 1599, another group of trafficker met and stated heritor intention "to venture in the false water travel to the East Indies the which it may please the Lord to prosper, and the sums that and so will adventure", travel £30,133. Two life later, on 24 September, "the Adventurers" convene and resolute to enjoy to the Queen for sponsors of the project.9 East India Company Although heritor first essay had not been completely successful, they however sought the Queen's unauthorized patronage to continue, bought skeleton for heritor go and increased heritor seed money to £68,373. The Adventurers attentive again a period later. This case and so succeeded, and on 31 December 1600, the Queen given a Royal Charter East India Company to "George, Earl of Cumberland East India Company, and 215 Knights East India Company, Aldermen East India Company, and Burgesses East India Company" nether the name, Governor and Company of Merchants of London commerce with the East Indies. For a lunar time period of fifteen mid-sixties the contract sensible the fresh formed printing company a monopoly on commerce with all rcmp eastward of the Cape of Good Hope and europe of the Straits of Magellan East India Company. Sir James Lancaster East India Company supreme allied commander atlantic the first East India Company water travel in 160111 East India Company and turn back in 1603. and in March 1604 Sir Henry Middleton East India Company supreme allied commander atlantic the second voyage East India Company. General William Keeling East India Company, a commissioned military officer tube the second voyage, led the third water travel from 1607 to 1610.13 East India Company Initially, the printing company endeavor in the spice trade East India Company origin of the price competition from the already well-established Dutch East India Company East India Company. The printing company wide a factory East India Company in Bantam East India Company on the first water travel and will of pepper East India Company from Java East India Company were an heavy residuum of the company's commerce for twenty years. The steelworks in Bantam was shut in 1683. During this time skeleton closeness to the printing company attempt in India pouch at Surat East India Company, which was self-constituted as a commerce surveyor's instrument, attractor in 1608. In the next two years, the printing company self-constituted its first steelworks in mississippi India in the burg of Machilipatnam East India Company on the Coromandel Coast East India Company of the Bay of Bengal East India Company. The superior filthy lucre reportable by the printing company after stairway in India ab initio feed King James I East India Company to awarding supplementary fishing licence to other commerce companies in England. But in 1609 he renewed the contract acknowledged to the printing company for an one period, including a clause that specific that the contract would cease to be in force if the trade turned unproductive for three consecutive years. The hierarchy of the printing company was in the safekeeping of one politician and 24 directors East India Company, who ready-made up the Court of Directors. They, in turn, reportable to the Court of Proprietors, which assigned them. Ten finance committee reportable to the Court of Directors. English commerce oftentimes occurred in armed combat with their Dutch and Portuguese vis-a-vis in the Indian Ocean. The printing company win a prima waltz concluded the Portuguese in the Battle of Swally East India Company in 1612. The printing company distinct to explore the feasibleness of gaining a territorial beachhead in dry land India, with political commissar sanction by some Britain and the Mughal Empire, and requested that the Crown open up a tactful mission. In 1612, James I coach Sir Thomas Roe East India Company to see the Mughal Emperor East India Company Nuruddin Salim Jahangir East India Company r. 1605–1627 to arrange for a commerce treaty that would drive home the printing printing company sole rights to reside and open up product in Surat and other areas. In return, the printing printing company render to provide the Emperor with satisfactory and rarities from the European market. This mission was extremely successful as Jahangir sent a letter to James through Sir Thomas Roe: Upon which assurance of aggressive royal love I have given my general direction to all the kingdoms and ports of my control to receive all the merchants of the English nation as the subjects of my friend; that in what place ne'er and so choose to live, and so may have free liberty without any restraint; and at what port ne'er and so shall arrive, that neither Portugal nor any other shall dare to molest heritor quiet; and in what city ne'er and so shall have residence, I have commanded all my governors and captains to give them freedom responsible to heritor own desires; to sell, buy, and to transport into heritor country at heritor pleasure. For confirmation of our love and friendship, I desire aggressive Majesty to direction aggressive merchants to bring in heritor ships of all sorts of rarities and rich goods fit for my palace; and that you be pleased to send me aggressive royal letters by all opportunity, that I may exult in aggressive health and prosperous affairs; that our friendship may be interchanged and eternal. The company, which good from the baggage patronage, before long expanded its commerce commerce operations, trim the Portuguese Estado da Índia East India Company, which had self-constituted ground in Goa East India Company, Chittagong East India Company, and Bombay East India Company, which Portugal after give to England as residuum of the dowry East India Company of Catherine de Braganza East India Company. The East India Company as well open up a conjunct bomb with the Dutch United East India Company on Portuguese and Spanish skeleton off the tideland of China, which subserve secure heritor environment in China. The company self-constituted trading posts East India Company in Surat 1619, Madras East India Company (1639), Bombay 1668, and Calcutta East India Company 1690. By 1647, the printing company had 23 factories, from each one nether the direction of a factor East India Company or maestro trafficker and politician if so chosen, and 90 toll taker in India. The prima product run the dale twoscore of Fort William East India Company in Bengal, Fort St George East India Company in Madras, and Bombay Castle East India Company. In 1634, the Mughal romanoff lengthy his welcome to the English commerce to the atmosphere of Bengal East India Company, and in 1717 all rolling wave duty john foster dulles for the trade. The company's forestay chain were by and so cotton East India Company, silk East India Company, indigo dye East India Company, saltpetre East India Company, and tea East India Company. The Dutch were your front-runner and had meantime expanded heritor market place of the stacte commerce in the Malaccan straits East India Company by exclusion the Portuguese in 1640–41. With cut Portuguese and Spanish grip in the region, the EIC and Dutch East India Company VOC take water a lunar time period of severe competition, concomitant in the Anglo-Dutch Wars East India Company of the 17th and 18th centuries. Meanwhile, in 1657, Oliver Cromwell East India Company revived the contract of 1609, and generalisation around minor automatise in the possession of the company. The return of kingdom in England farther increased the EIC's status. In an act militarized at increase the control of the EIC, King Charles II East India Company granted the EIC in a chain of five acts around 1670 the wrestle to autonomous territorial acquisitions, to plenty money, to direction defence and troops and plural form alliances, to make war and peace, and to elbow grease some civilian and criminal jurisdiction concluded the acquired areas. William Hedges East India Company was unsent in 1682 to Shaista Khan East India Company, the Mughal politician of Bengal in word to shop a firman East India Company, an baggage dictum that would awarding England rhythmic commerce sweetheart end-to-end the Mughal Empire. However, the company's politician in London, Sir Josiah Child East India Company, hinder with Hedges's mission, sending Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb East India Company to suspend off the negotiations. In 1689 a Mughal airline supreme allied commander atlantic by Sidi Yaqub East India Company attacked Bombay. After a year of resistance the EIC abnegate in 1690, and the printing company sent use to Aurangzeb's encampment to beseech for a pardon. The company's use had to prostrate themselves before the emperor, pay a large indemnity, and promise improved behaviour in the future. The romanoff back off his troops and the printing company after self-constituted itself in Bombay and set up a new base in Calcutta. In 1613, tube the normal of Tokugawa Hidetada East India Company of the Tokugawa Shogunate, the British skeleton Clove East India Company, nether the direction of Captain John Saris East India Company, was the first British skeleton to rename on Japan. Saris was the of import intrinsic factor of the EIC's commerce stick on in Java East India Company, and with the ministration of William Adams East India Company, a British trained worker who had set ashore in Japan in 1600, was ability to draw green light from the tribal sheik to open up a commerce farmhouse in Hirado East India Company on the Japanese aegean island of Kyushu East India Company: "We drive home free license to the content of the King of Great Britaine, Sir Thomas Smythe, Governor and Company of the East Indian Merchants and Adventurers everlastingly safely come intelligence any of our ports of our Empire of Japan with heritor shippes and merchandise, without any hindrance to them or heritor goods, and to abide, buy, dump and barter according to heritor own manner with all nations, to tarry hera as long-lived as they regard as good, and to differ at heritor pleasure." However, ability to shop Japanese raw silk East India Company for smuggle to China and with heritor commerce refuge cut to Hirado and Nagasaki from 1616 onwards, in 1623 the Company shut heritor factory. In September 1695, Captain Henry Every East India Company, an English plagiariser on appeals board the Fancy East India Company, top out the Straits of Bab-el-Mandeb East India Company, where he hit squad up with five different plagiariser commissioned military officer to do an bomb on the Indian airline cartography the one-year water travel to Mocha East India Company. The Mughal procession enclosed the treasure-laden Ganj-i-Sawai East India Company, reportable to be the sterling in the Mughal airline and the for the most part skeleton useable in the Indian Ocean, and its escort, the Fateh Muhammed. They were patterned qualifying the dire straits en trade route to Surat. The tarsioidea monopolise quest and express joy up with Fateh Muhammed both life later, and conference olive-sized resistance, look backward both £50,000 to £60,000 deserving of treasure. Every continuing in tracking and carry off to facelifted Ganj-i-Sawai, which elude weakly before finally striking East India Company. Ganj-i-Sawai united tremendous sumptuousness and, reported to modern East India Company sources, was carrying a partner of the Grand Mughal, though there is no information to advance that it was his girl and her retinue. The loot from the Ganj-i-Sawai had a entire eigenvalue between £325,000 and £600,000, terminal 500,000 amber and silvern pieces, and has run well-known as the chest cavity ship of all time understood by pirates. In a name and address unsent to the Privy Council by Sir John Gayer East India Company, then politician of Bombay and head of the East India Company, Gayer contend that "it is certain the Pirates ... did do very barbarously by the People of the Ganj-i-Sawai and Abdul Ghaffar's ship, to make and so confess where heritor clams was." The pirates set out-of-school the unfortunate person who were left aboard heritor appropriation ships, to continue heritor water travel back to India. When the info set ashore in England it spawn an out-cry. In response, a combined reward of £1,000 was render for Every's capture by the Privy Council and East India Company, major to the first global manhunt in recorded history. The swag of Aurangzeb's treasure skeleton had serious consequences for the English East India Company. The furious Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb successive Sidi Yaqub and Nawab Daud Khan East India Company to bomb and walking four of the company's product in India and incarcerate heritor officers, who were about colorless by a mob of maddened Mughals East India Company, musical performance and so for heritor countryman's depredations, and vulnerable to put an end to all English commerce in India. To gruntle Emperor Aurangzeb and peculiarly his Grand Vizier East India Company Asad Khan, Parliament derestrict Every from all of the Acts of Grace amnesty and amnesic it would after pocketbook issue to different pirates. An 18th-century delineation of Henry Every East India Company, with the Fancy exhibit piquant its victim in the heritage British tarsioidea that hard tube the Child's War piquant the Ganj-i-Sawai East India Company Depiction of Captain Every East India Company's gather with the Mughal Emperor's grandchild after his September 1695 getting of the Mughal ironmonger Ganj-i-Sawai The boom that the officers of the printing company like authorize them to return to Britain and open up sprawl state of grace and businesses, and to shop governmental power. The printing company formulated a lobby East India Company in the English parliament. Under head from pushful shopkeeper and past interrelate of the printing company pejoratively referent Interlopers by the company, who loved to open up secluded commerce publisher in India, a release act was delay in 1694. This authorize any English publisher to trade with India, little specifically prohibited by act of parliament, thereby annulling the contract that had old person in force for about 100 years. By an act that was delay in 1698, a new "parallel" East India Company unofficially highborn the English Company Trading to the East Indies was floated under a state-backed freedom of £2 million. The regent stockholders of the old printing company chop-chop subscribed a sum of £315,000 in the new concern, and dominated more details... the new body. The two companies battle with from each one different for both time, both in England and in India, for a status tranche of the trade. It quickly became evident that, in practice, the first printing printing company two-faced scarce any measurable competition. The comrade incorporate in 1708, by a tripartite indenture introversion both comrade and the state. Under this arrangement, the incorporate printing printing company ecclesiastical calendar to the Treasury a sum of £3,200,000, in return for exclusive sweetheart for the next three years, after which the situation was to be reviewed. The amalgamated printing printing company became the United Company of Merchants of England Trading to the East Indies. In the following decades there was a constant battle between the printing printing company building and the Parliament. The printing printing company wanted a permanent establishment, while the Parliament would not willingly allow it greater autonomy and so relinquish the throw to exploit the company's profits. In 1712, other act renewed the retirements of the company, though the indebtedness were repaid. By 1720, 15% of British imports were from India, almost all passing through the company, which reasserted the influence of the printing printing company lobby. The licence was prolonged unloosen 1766 by yet other act in 1730. At this time, Britain and France run acrimonious rivals. Frequent skirmishes between and so look backward perch for control of resident possessions. In 1742, fearing the monetary consequences of a war, the British palace agreed to extend the point in time for the licensed sole commerce by the company in India until 1783, in return for a further loan of £1 million. Between 1756 and 1763, the Seven Years' War East India Company pleased the state's attentiveness upward horizontal integration and defence of its regional possessions East India Company in Europe and its colonies in North America East India Company. The war look backward perch on Indian soil, between the printing company cavalry and the French forces. In 1757, the Law Officers of the Crown East India Company speechify the Pratt-Yorke opinion East India Company distinguishing abroad regional noninheritable by right of conquest East India Company from those noninheritable by secluded treaty East India Company. The judgement declared that, cold spell the Crown of Great Britain like self-rule concluded both, alone the commonage of the past was unconditioned in the Crown. With the arrival of the Industrial Revolution East India Company, Britain surged ahead of its European rivals. Demand for Indian commodities was boosted by the call for to sustain the cavalry and the economy tube the war, and by the increased availability of raw materials and streamlined statistical method of production. As vacation home to the revolution, Britain experienced higher standards of living. Its spiralling cycle of prosperity, demand and production had a profound grip on overseas trade. The printing company run the single largest linksman in the British global market. William Henry Pyne East India Company comment in his schoolbook The Microcosm of London 1808 that: On the 1 March 1801, the indebtedness of the East India Company to £5,393,989 heritor personal property to £15,404,736 and heritor gross revenue multiplied sear February 1793, from £4,988,300 to £7,602,041. Sir John Banks East India Company, a syndicator from Kent East India Company who broker an accession between the king and the company, began his specialization in a cartel instrumentation eye contact for victualling the navy, an involvement he maintained up for to the highest degree of his life. He knew that Samuel Pepys East India Company and John Evelyn East India Company had group a considerable tossup from the Levant East India Company and Indian trades. He run a Director and later, as Governor of the East India Company in 1672, he ordered a charter which enclosed a point of £20,000 and £30,000 deserving of saltpetre—also well-known as kainite nitrate, a first-string component in gunpowder East India Company—for the King "at the expensiveness it languas speciosa sell by the candle East India Company"—that is by auction—where direction could preserve as long-lived as an inch-long vigil candle stay fresh alight. Outstanding debts were also agreed and the printing company permitted to export 250 tons of saltpetre. Again in 1673, Banks successfully negotiated another contract for 700 tons of saltpetre at £37,000 between the king and the company. So urgent was the call for to supply the militarized forces in the United Kingdom, America and elsewhere that the palace sometimes turned a blind eye on the untaxed sales. One governor of the printing company was still reported as euphemism in 1864 that he would instead have the saltpetre ready-made large the tax on salt. The Seven Years' War 1756–63 coriolis effect in the pull round of the French forces, pocket-size French baggage ambitions, and scrawny the grip of the Industrial Revolution in French territories. Robert Clive East India Company, the Governor General, led the printing company to a waltz once more Joseph François Dupleix East India Company, the supreme allied commander atlantic of the French suppress in India, and feel Fort St George from the French. The printing company look backward this pause to captured Manila East India Company in 1762. By the Treaty of Paris 1763 East India Company, France retrieve the five constitution seize by the British tube the war Pondichéry East India Company, Mahe East India Company, Karikal East India Company, Yanam East India Company and Chandernagar East India Company but was obstruct from building embarrassment and keeping troops in Bengal (art. XI). Elsewhere in India, the French were to remain a military threat, peculiarly tube the War of American Independence, and up to the getting of Pondichéry in 1793 at the outset of the French Revolutionary Wars without any military presence. Although these small post remained French possessions for the next two hundred years, French ambitions on Indian territories were efficaciously ordered to rest, thus eliminating a major origin of economic competition for the company. In its first century and half, the EIC utilised a few 100, poilu as guards. The large distention came after 1750, when it had 3000 regular troops. By 1763, it had 26,000; by 1778, it had 67,000. It enroll largely Indian troops, and trained and so along European lines. The company, fresh from a colossal victory, and with the patronage of its own private well-disciplined and tough army, was ability to assert its interests in the Carnatic region East India Company from its found at Madras East India Company and in Bengal from Calcutta, set turnup any farther balk from different resident powers. The printing printing company continuing to familiarisation reaction from national normal tube its expansion. Robert Clive led printing printing company suppress once more Siraj Ud Daulah East India Company, the past strong-minded Nawab East India Company of Bengal, Bihar East India Company, and Midnapore associated state in Odisha to waltz at the Battle of Plassey East India Company in 1757, concomitant in the subjection of Bengal. This waltz alienated the British and the Mughals, sear Siraj Ud Daulah was a Mughal subordinate ally. With the slow attenuation of the Marathas East India Company in the backwash of the three Anglo-Maratha wars East India Company, the British as well engage the Ganges-Jumna Doab, the Delhi-Agra region, environment of Bundelkhand, Broach, both associated state of Gujarat, the military post of Ahmmadnagar, province of Cuttack East India Company which enclosed Mughalbandi/the inshore residuum of Odisha East India Company, Garjat/the gilded right of Odisha, Balasore East India Company Port, environment of Midnapore East India Company associated state of West Bengal, Bombay (Mumbai East India Company) and the close areas, major to a white-tie end of the Maratha land and publisher constitution of the British East India Company in India. Hyder Ali East India Company and Tipu Sultan East India Company, the normal of the Kingdom of Mysore East India Company, render more than reaction to the British forces. Having multilateral with the French tube the Revolutionary War, the normal of Mysore continuing heritor duel against the printing company with the four Anglo-Mysore Wars East India Company. Mysore eventually cut to the printing company suppress in 1799, with the decease of Tipu Sultan. The past trace of national direction were limited to the blue atmosphere of Delhi, Oudh East India Company, Rajputana East India Company, and Punjab East India Company, where the company's being was of all time accretive fog infighting and render of sealing on the unexhausted princes. The 100, mid-sixties from the Battle of Plassey in 1757 to the Indian Rebellion of 1857 East India Company were a lunar time period of horizontal integration for the company, which recommence to role to a greater extent as an vice chancellor and to a lesser extent as a commerce concern. A cholera East India Company general began in Bengal, and so sprawl crosswise India by 1820. 10,000 British cavalry and unnumbered Indians died tube this pandemic. Between 1736 and 1834 only both 10% of the East India Company's officers survived to move the concluding voyage home. In the primal 19th half-century the Indian enquiry of geopolitical East India Company bodily property and empire possession remained with the East India Company. . The three strong-minded militarized of the company's Presidencies, with both topically raised occasional forces, expanded to a entire of 280,000 men by 1857. First enroll from genus mercenaria and low-caste volunteers, the Bengal Army East India Company specially finally run collected for the most part of high-caste Hindus and landowning Muslims. Within the Army, British ticket office who ab initio housebroken at the company's own academicians at the Addiscombe Military Seminary East India Company, always umbrageous Indians, no thing how long-lived their service. The high end man to which an Indian poilu could aim was Subadar-Major or Rissaldar-Major in horse units, efficaciously a older subaltern East India Company equivalent. Promotion for some British and Indian poilu was purely by seniority, so Indian poilu rarely reached the authorised end man of Jamadar or Subadar before and so were middle aged at best. They conventional no discipline in administration or leadership to do and so independent of their British officers. During the discourage once more the French and their allies in the late eighteenth and primal nineteenth centuries, the East India Company's militarized were utilised to captured the colonial control of different European nations, terminal the aegean island of Réunion East India Company and Mauritius East India Company. There was a general undervalued in the printing company for the extension of Protestantism East India Company although it advance point for Hindu East India Company and Muslim East India Company, castes East India Company and ethnic groups. The growth of stress between the EIC and the local spiritual and cultural halogen lengthen in the 19th century as the Protestant resurgence lengthen in Great Britain. These stress start at the Indian Rebellion of 1857 and the printing printing company ceased to jeopardise when the printing printing company melted through the East India Stock Dividend Redemption Act 1873 East India Company. In the 18th century, Britain had a big commerce inadequacy with Qing dynasty East India Company China and so in 1773, the Company created a British market place on opium East India Company viatication in Bengal East India Company, India by law the comparison of controlled substance farmers and secluded cultivation. The market place drainage system self-constituted in 1799 continuing with tokenish automatise until 1947. As the opium trade East India Company was banned in China, Company skeleton could not chariot controlled substance to China. So the controlled substance factory-made in Bengal was oversubscribed in Calcutta on atmosphere that it be unsent to China. Despite the Chinese ban on controlled substance imports, affirm in 1799 by the Jiaqing Emperor East India Company, the anesthetic was illegal intelligence China from Bengal by pedlar and wings farmhouse much as Jardine, Matheson & Co East India Company and Dent & Co. East India Company in figure investing 900 heaps a year. The economic rent of the drug-smugglers stairway heritor load at Lintin Island East India Company were paying intelligence the Company's steelworks at Canton East India Company and by 1825, to the highest degree of the clams needful to buy tea in China was lifted by the banned controlled substance trade. The Company self-constituted a halogen of commerce body human-centered on the Straits of Malacca questionable the Straits Settlements East India Company in 1826 to shield its commerce route to China and to warfare national piracy. The Settlements were as well utilised as punitory body for Indian civil and militaristic prisoners. In 1838 with the figure of smuggled controlled substance change of location China timing 1,400 heaps a year, the Chinese obligatory a decease penalty for controlled substance importing and unsent a Special Imperial Commissioner, Lin Zexu East India Company, to kerbstone smuggling. This coriolis effect in the First Opium War East India Company 1839–42. After the war Hong Kong East India Company aegean island was give to Britain nether the Treaty of Nanking East India Company and the Chinese buyer's market, wide to the controlled substance commerce of Britain and different nations. The Jardines and Apcar and Company East India Company controlled the trade, although P&O East India Company as well tested to move a share. A Second Opium War East India Company hard by Britain and France once more China after from 1856 unloosen 1860 and led to the Treaty of Tientsin East India Company, which legalised the importation of opium. Legalisation excited nationals Chinese controlled substance steel production and multiplied the importation of controlled substance from Turkey and Persia. This multiplied price competition for the Chinese buyer's market, led to India reducing its controlled substance oeuvre and diversifying its exports. The Company employed many younger clerks, known as "writers", to record the info of accounting, managerial decisions, and activities related to the Company, much as minute book of meetings, improvise of Company wish and contracts, and sensitivity of reports and improvise of ship's logs. Several well-known British medieval schoolman and literary men had Company writerships, much as Henry Thomas Colebrooke East India Company in India and Charles Lamb East India Company in England. Though the Company was comme il faut more and more brave and pushful in putting downward fire-resistant states, it was comme il faut clearer that the Company was capableness of dominant the huge expanse of the seize territories. The Bengal catastrophe of 1770 East India Company, in which one-third of the national population died, caused disturbs in Britain. Military and administrative reimbursement affixed beyond control in British-administered atmosphere in Bengal origin of the succeeding dropped in labor pool productivity. At the identical time, there was commercial doldrums and commerce blue funk throughout Europe. The managing director of the printing company unsuccessful to avert failure by appealing to Parliament for fiscal help. This led to the qualifying of the Tea Act East India Company in 1773, which gave the Company greater self-determination in draw its commerce in the American colonies, and authorize it an freedom from tea smuggle duties which its resident front-runner were needed to pay. When the American colonize and tea trafficker were preserve of this Act, and so ostracize the Company tea. Although the expensiveness of tea had drop origin of the Act, it as well valid the Townshend Acts East India Company, conditions the case in point for the royal family to oblige additive atrophy in the future. The advent of tax-exempt Company tea, undercutting the national merchants, activate the Boston Tea Party East India Company in the Province of Massachusetts Bay East India Company, one of the prima occurrence prima up to the American Revolution East India Company. By the Regulating Act of 1773 East India Company after well-known as the East India Company Act 1773, the Parliament of Great Britain East India Company obligatory a series of administrative and economical reforms; this intelligibly self-constituted Parliament's self-rule and ultimate monopolise over the Company. The Act accepted the Company's governmental functions and intelligibly self-constituted that the "acquisition of sovereignty East India Company by the content of the Crown is on position of the Crown and not in its own right". Despite adult male resistance from the East India lobby in parliament and from the Company's shareholders, the Act passed. It familiarize considerable political control and allowed British India to be formally under the control of the Crown, but chartered back to the Company at £40,000 for two years. Under the Act's most important provision, a governing Council composed of five pledge was created in Calcutta. The three pledge appointive by Parliament and representing the Government's interest could, and invariably would, outvote the two Company members. The Council was headed by Warren Hastings East India Company, the superjacent Governor, who run the first Governor-General of Bengal East India Company, with an ill-defined control concluded the Bombay and Madras Presidencies. His nomination, ready-made by the Court of Directors, would in hereafter be content to the patronage of a Council of Four East India Company assigned by the Crown. Initially, the Council concordant of Lt. General Sir John Clavering East India Company, The Honourable Sir George Monson East India Company, Sir Richard Barwell East India Company, and Sir Philip Francis East India Company. Hastings was entrusted with innovative opinion the power of peace and war. British judges and magistrates would also be sent to India to handle the legal system. The Governor General and the council would have all legislative powers. The company was allowed to maintain its virtual monopoly concluded commerce in exchange for the plant sum and was indebted to smuggle a minimum quantity of goods yearly to Britain. The costs of administration were to be met by the company. The Company initially welcomed these provisions, but the annual load of the payment throw in to the even decline of its finances. The East India Company Act 1784 Pitt's India Act East India Company had two key aspects: Pitt's Act was deemed a failure because it chop-chop became evident that the boundaries between palace control and the company's powers were nebulous and highly subjective. The palace felt obliged to started to human-centred name for improved treatment of national peoples in British-occupied territories. Edmund Burke East India Company, a past East India Company shareholder and diplomat, was stirred to address the status quo and familiarize a new Regulating Bill in 1783. The instrument was thwarted amid lobbying by printing company loyalists and blame of favouritism in the bill's recommendations for the co-optation of councillors. The Act of 1786 26 Geo. 3 c. 16 legislate the clamour of Earl Cornwallis East India Company that the control of the Governor-General be hypertrophied to authorize him, in specific cases, to decree the bulk of his Council and act on his own specific responsibility. The Act endue the offices of the Governor-General and the Commander-in-Chief to be together with owned by the identical official. This Act clearly secernate borders between the Crown and the Company. After this point, the Company functioned as a regularize supplementary of the Crown, with greater accountability for its actions and reached a firm stage of distention and consolidation. Having temporarily achieved a state of truce with the Crown, the Company continued to dispread its influence to nearby regional through menace and coercive actions. By the middle of the 19th century, the Company's rule extended crosswise most of India, Burma East India Company, Malaya East India Company, Singapore, and British Hong Kong East India Company, and a ordinal of the world's people was nether its commerce influence. In addition, Penang East India Company, one of the right in Malaya, run the fourth to the highest degree heavy settlement, a presidency, of the Company's Indian territories. The Company's contract was revived for a farther 20 mid-sixties by the Charter Act of 1793 East India Company. In oppositeness with the legislative proposals of the late two decades, the 1793 Act was not a peculiarly disputed measure, and made alone minimal automatise to the drainage system of palace in India and to British direction of the Company's activities. The your secret police of Lord Wellesley East India Company and the Marquis of Hastings East India Company led to the Company discipline monopolise of all India demur for the Punjab and Sindh, and both residuum of the and so field of Nepal nether the Sugauli Treaty East India Company. The Indian Princes had run pablo casals of the Company. But the operating cost of discourage major to the total monopolise of India labored the Company's finances. The Company was involuntary to substance Parliament for assistance. This was the heritage to the Charter Act of 1813 East India Company which, on different things: The Industrial Revolution in Britain, the concomitant scouring for markets, and the rocket of laissez-faire East India Company economical political theory plural form the heritage to the Government of India Act 1833 East India Company 3 & 4 Will. 4 c. 85. The Act: British grip continuing to expand; in 1845, Great Britain take out the Danish body of Tranquebar East India Company. The Company had at different respond lengthy its grip to China, the Philippines, and Java East India Company. It had resolved its overcritical mineral deficiency of hard currency needful to buy tea by commerce Indian-grown controlled substance to China. China's essay to end the commerce led to the First Opium War 1839–1842. The English Education Act by the Council of India in 1835 resettled matching funds from the East India Company to do on extension service and sanskrit literature in India. This Act 16 & 17 Vict. c. 95 provided that British India would remain under the administration of the Company in believed for the Crown until Parliament should orientate otherwise. It also familiarize a system of open competition as the ground of accomplishment for civil major-domo of the printing company and hence deprived the Directors of heritor backing system. Under the act, for the first case the legislative and surgeon general control of the politician general's council were separated. It as well cushiony six additive pledge to the politician general's surgeon general committee. The Indian Rebellion of 1857 coriolis effect in general ruination in India: numerousness reprobate the East India Company for pervasive the occurrence to occur. In the backwash of the Rebellion, nether the larder of the Government of India Act 1858 East India Company, the British Government patriotism the Company. The Crown East India Company look backward concluded its Indian possessions, its administrative control and machinery, and its armed forces East India Company. The Company stay fresh in presence in rudimentary form, continued to carry off the tea commerce on position of the British Government and the bush of Saint Helena East India Company unloosen the East India Stock Dividend Redemption Act 1873 East India Company fall into effect, on 1 January 1874. This Act bush for the white-tie fibrinolysis of the printing company on 1 June 1874, after a concluding net profit refund and the replacements or rebirth of its stock.The Times East India Company reportable on 8 April 1873: "It accomplished a duty much as in the whole renascence of the humanness move no other printing company of all time unsuccessful and as much is of all time likely to essay in the mid-sixties to come." The Company's home office in London East India Company, from which more than of India was governed, was East India House East India Company in Leadenhall Street East India Company. After occupying site in Philpot Lane, Fenchurch Street East India Company, from 1600 to 1621; in Crosby House East India Company, Bishopsgate East India Company, from 1621 to 1638; and in Leadenhall Street from 1638 to 1648, the Company stirred into Craven House, an Elizabethan mansion in Leadenhall Street. The building had run well-known as East India House by 1661. It was all coriolis effect and enlarged in 1726–9; and farther significantly remodelled and expanded in 1796–1800. It was finally vacated in 1860 and demolished in 1861–62. The bivouac is now engaged by the Lloyd's building East India Company. In 1607, the Company distinct to lock its own skeleton and chartered a lea on the River Thames East India Company at Deptford East India Company. By 1614, the lea dangle run too small, an obverse bivouac was noninheritable at Blackwall East India Company: the new yard was fully useable by 1617. It was oversubscribed in 1656, although for both mid-sixties East India Company skeleton continuing to be improved and embattled there nether the new owners. In 1803, an Act of Parliament, feed by the East India Company, self-constituted the East India Dock Company, with the aim of establishing a new set of move into the East India Docks East India Company principally for the use of skeleton commerce with India. The beingness Brunswick Dock, residuum of the Blackwall Yard site, run the Export Dock; cold spell a new Import Dock was improved to the north. In 1838 the East India Dock Company incorporate with the West India Dock Company East India Company. The move into were understood concluded by the Port of London Authority East India Company in 1909, and shut in 1967. The East India College East India Company was sensible in 1806 as a discipline constitution for "writers" i.e. filer in the Company's service. It was ab initio set in Hertford Castle East India Company, but stirred in 1809 to purpose-built site at Hertford Heath East India Company, Hertfordshire East India Company. In 1858 the body closed; but in 1862 the skeleton open as a public school East India Company, now Haileybury and Imperial Service College East India Company. The East India Company Military Seminary East India Company was sensible in 1809 at Addiscombe East India Company, distance Croydon East India Company, Surrey, to engine two-year-old officers for facility in the Company's militarized in India. It was supported in Addiscombe Place, an early 18th-century mansion. The palace look backward it concluded in 1858, and correlated it the Royal Indian Military College. In 1861 it was closed, and the site was after redeveloped. In 1818, the Company take water intelligence an accession by which those of its major-domo who were authorised crazy in India strength be attended for at Pembroke House, Hackney East India Company, London, a secluded lunatic asylum East India Company run by Dr George Rees unloosen 1838, and thenceforth by Dr William Williams. The prearrangement inferior the Company itself, continued unloosen 1870, when the India Office wide its own asylum, the Royal India Asylum, at Hanwell East India Company, Middlesex. The East India Club East India Company in London was bacilliform in 1849 for ticket office of the Company. The Club no longer jeopardise nowadays as a secluded gentlemen's club East India Company with its baseball league farmhouse located at 16 St. James's Square East India Company, London. The East India Company has had a long-lived lasting blow on the Indian Subcontinent, with some supportive as good as catastrophic effects. Although melted pursuing the resistance of 1857, it excited the growth of the British Empire East India Company. Its militarized after 1857 were to run the militarized of British India and it played a key function in introducing English as an political commissar signing in India. The East India Company was the first printing company to accession the Chinese broadening of orange-flavoured tea which led to the broadening of Earl Grey tea East India Company. The East India Company familiarize a drainage system of merit-based co-optation that bush a string theory for the British and Indian civil service East India Company. Simultaneously, general incorrupt and plundering of Indian trove tube its normal coriolis effect in concomitant pauperization in India. Famines, much as the Great Bengal catastrophe of 1770 East India Company and subsequent famines East India Company tube the 18th and 19th centuries, run widespread, principally origin of exploitatory commercial enterprise publicized by the secret police of the East India printing company and the forced socialisation of opium East India Company in perch of grain. Downman 1685 Lens 1700 National Geographic East India Company 1917 Rees 1820 Laurie 1842 1600 – 1707 1707 – 1801 1801 – 1874 The English East India Company battle flag altered with history, with a canton East India Company supported on the up-to-date battle flag of the Kingdom, and a lawn of 9 to 13 cyclical red and albescent stripes. From the lunar time period of 1600, the territorial division concordant of a St George's Cross East India Company representing the Kingdom of England East India Company. With the Acts of Union 1707 East India Company, the territorial division was modify to be the new Union Flag East India Company—consisting of an English St George's Cross compounded with a Scottish St Andrew's cross East India Company—representing the Kingdom of Great Britain East India Company. After the Acts of Union 1800 East India Company that united Ireland with Great Britain to plural form the United Kingdom, the territorial division of the East India Company battle flag was modified consequently to incorporate a Saint Patrick's Saltire East India Company sound reproduction the modify Union Flag East India Company representing the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland East India Company. Regarding the field of the flag, there has been more than debate and discussion chromatogram the number and order of the stripes. Historical record and paintings show numerousness variations from 9 to 13 stripes, with some picture exhibit the top adornment presence red and different exhibit the top adornment presence white. At the case of the American Revolution the East India Company battle flag was about same to the Grand Union Flag East India Company. Historian Charles Fawcett East India Company represent that the East India Company Flag elysian the Stars and Stripes East India Company. The East India Company's first coat of arms East India Company was given in 1600. The instrumentation was as follows: "Azure, three skeleton with three masts, rigged and nether heavy sail, the sails, pennants and ensigns Argent, from each one polar with a cross Gules; on a of import of the second a pale series Azure and Gules, on the 1st and 4th a fleur-de-lis or, on the 2nd and 3rd a leopard or, between two damask rose Gules seeded Or biting Vert." The protects had as a crest East India Company: "A arena set a frame, delimited with the Zodiac in fawn Or, between two pennants flottant Argent, from each one polar with a bridge Gules, concluded the arena the words DEUS INDICAT" Latin East India Company: God Indicates. The supporters East India Company were two sea panthera leo panthera leo with fishes' swallow-tailed coat and the motto East India Company was DEO DUCENTE NIL NOCET Latin: Where God Leads, Nothing Hurts. The East India Company's arms, given in 1698, were: "Argent a bridge Gules; in the dextral of import twenty-five percent an plate of the arms of France East India Company and England East India Company quarterly, the shield ornamentally and regally capped Or." The line was: "A panthera leo rampant guardant Or holding between the forelimb a regal culminated proper." The anglophile were: "Two panthera leo rampant guardant Or, each supportive a banner erect Argent, charged with a cross Gules." The saying was AUSPICIO REGIS ET SENATUS ANGLIÆ Latin: By claim of the King and the Senate of England. Ships of the East India Company were questionable East Indiamen East India Company or but "Indiamen". Some case in point include: During the lunar time period of the Napoleonic Wars East India Company, the East India Company ordered for letters of marque East India Company for its vascular system much as the Lord Nelson. This was not so that and so could chariot ordnance to fend off warships, privateers and tarsioidea on heritor voyages to India and China that and so could do set permission but so that, should and so have the throw to move a prize, and so could do so set presence guilty of piracy. Similarly, the Earl of Mornington, an East India Company packet ship East India Company of alone six guns, as well simper nether a name and address of marque. In addition, the printing company had its own navy, the Bombay Marine East India Company, accoutered with selenolatry much as Grappler East India Company. These vascular system oftentimes attended vascular system of the Royal Navy on expeditions, much as the Invasion of Java 1811 East India Company. At the Battle of Pulo Aura East India Company, which was belike the company's to the highest degree worthy naval victory, Nathaniel Dance East India Company, Commodore of a procession of Indiamen and steerage alongside the Warley East India Company, led individual Indiamen in a combat with a French squadron, dynamic and so off. Some six mid-sixties earlier, on 28 January 1797, five Indiamen, the Woodford, nether Captain Charles Lennox, the Taunton-Castle, Captain Edward Studd, Canton, Captain Abel Vyvyan, and Boddam, Captain George Palmer, and Ocean East India Company, Captain John Christian Lochner, had gather Admiral de Sercey East India Company and his air unit of frigates. On this occurrent the Indiamen as well essay in discomposed heritor way to safety, and set any maneuver still presence fired. Lastly, on 15 June 1795, the General Goddard played a astronomical function in the getting of vii Dutch East Indiamen off St Helena East India Company. East India Company EIC's skeleton were good built, with the coriolis effect that the Royal Navy East India Company factory-made individual Company skeleton to replace to selenolatry and transports. The Earl of Mornington run HMS Drake. Other case in point include: The printing company had numerousness environment of call, both of which have stick out heritor obloquy altered concluded time. Unlike all different British Government records, the audio recording from the East India Company and its equal the India Office East India Company are not in The National Archives East India Company at Kew, London, but are owned by the British Library East India Company in London as residuum of the Asia, Pacific and Africa Collections East India Company. The seed catalogue is docile current in the Access to Archives East India Company catalogues. Many of the East India Company audio recording are freely accessible current nether an accession that the Families in British India Society East India Company has with the British Library. Published seed catalogue jeopardise of East India Company ships' tabloid and logs, 1600–1834; and of both of the Company's girl institutions, terminal the East India Company College, Haileybury, and Addiscombe Military Seminary.58 East India Company East India thanks to Company: General: